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Blockchain and more blockchain! That’s currently a common term, almost a fad in the corporate spheres. Everybody wants something with blockchain, even if they don’t know exactly what a “blockchain” is. Something about cryptocurrencies, right? Something like a new super-techy-thingamajig, right…?

정확히는 아니에요, 친구. 따라서 우리는 블록 체인이 아닌 것이 무엇인지, 무엇을위한 것이 아닌지 언급 할 수 있습니다.

* Blockchain isn’t a cryptocurrency.
* Blockchain isn’t an investment platform.
* Blockchain isn’t the bigger open-source platform.
* 블록 체인은 분산 시스템이 아닐 수 있습니다.
* 블록 체인은 탈 중앙화 체계.
* Blockchain isn’t magical.
* Blockchain can’t solve all your problems.
* 블록 체인은 어떤 식 으로든 수입을 증가시키지 않을 수 있습니다.

공습 경보 해제? 그런 다음 시작할 수 있습니다. 배우다 what a “blockchain” really is and what is its purpose in the universe.

A blockchain is…

이것은 디지털 암호화 버전의 회계 장부에 지나지 않습니다. Sounds boring? Well, it’s kind of boring, to be honest. Where’s the magic in there? Why everybody is so excited? And why this thing has something to do 암호 화폐로? 설명하겠습니다.

12 년 전, 나카 모토 사토시 (Satoshi Nakamoto)라는 사람 (또는 집단)은 신뢰할 수없는 방식으로 디지털 현금의 이중 지출 문제를 해결하려고 노력했습니다. 확인! 우리는 조금 늦출 수 있습니다. 이중 지출은 기본적으로 동일한 디지털 머니를 두 번 이상 지출하는 것입니다. 인터넷에서 거의 모든 것을 복사하여 붙여 넣을 수 있습니다. 왜 돈은 안 되나요?

To avoid this kind of behavior, we’ve trusted centralized institutions, like banks and governments. Once you send an electronic bank transfer, the bank’s system discounts that money from your account. If they weren’t there, probably the people would just spend the same money several times. And that it’s like a robbery.

그래서, Satoshi는 이러한 중앙 집중식 기관을 대체하기 위해 자동 시스템을 생각하고있었습니다. and make it possible to have digital cash without the double-spending problem at the same time. He/she/it grabbed then a kind of experimental cryptographic (encrypted) database created in the 70s and mixed it up with other techy-elements to create the first decentralized digital currency without a double-spending problem. And Bitcoin was born in 2009!

Gerd Altmann / Pixabay의 이미지입니다.

이 실험적인 암호화 데이터베이스는 그 당시 아무도 몰랐음에도 불구하고 유명한 블록 체인입니다. 심지어 사토시 : 이름이 나왔다 Bitcoin 이후. Why not “crypto-database” or something like this, instead of “blockchain”? Well, it’s because the database is actually… a chain of blocks, as it sounds. Digital blocks.

블록은 어떻게 작동합니까?

Every “block” is a little container of data (monetary transactions, in a cryptocurrency case), chained to all the others (pasts and futures) with something called “hashes”. These are the encrypted result from passing the data through a complex algorithm. Something like this (if we use the SHA256 알고리즘):

*Initial data: You’ve transferred 1 BTC to Mike.
* 해시 된 데이터 : 710DAEB54021CCD83046E4FA16106E4DC10E5D617E4C28F61CE29C29CFAE823E

Every hash represents a unique identity for every transaction and every block (a group of transactions) in existence. All those identities mathematically merge later with each other, “chaining” themselves that way. So, if anybody tries to cheat, the hash of their transaction (the unique identity) will change; and if it changes, it’ll be unchained and become invalid automatically.

Christine Schmidt / Pixabay의 이미지입니다.

For example, let’s remember our initial data (You’ve transferred 1 BTC to Mike). If we change even a little character in there, the hash will radically change as well:

*Initial data: You’ve transferred 2 BTC to Mike.
* 해시 된 데이터 : 005002AC29AE0D1944110DB27CC73E9090F013B15207D84F2086B8646DAF549E

The transaction isn’t valid anymore and you, poor mortal, can’t deceive the blockchain system. Even if the authorities aren’t supervising. But now, let’s simulate the “merging” between transactions. Let’s say those hashes are indeed both valid and represent the identities of two different blocks. 그들은 어떻게 서로 연결되어 있습니까? 물론 함께 해싱합니다. 이렇게 :

* 초기 데이터 :
* 해시 된 데이터 : EDFE12B5DB008F6491BA671DBE6BA25BD89BD6445B5003E9B3789605DBD24AD8

And that’s it! If you want to change something and make it valid, you must first decipher and change every block in existence. Good luck with it.

A blockchain doesn’t work alone

Despite the math, that sophisticated ledger can’t work by itself. It needs the other elements Satoshi added to it: a distributed network of nodes (and people), the aforementioned algorithm to encrypt transactions and set the rules for the validators, the transactions to spend or “coins”, and private and public cryptographic keys. Let’s check quickly one by one.

분산 네트워크

Gerd Altmann / Pixabay의 이미지입니다.

It’s not the banks or governments, but someone should verify the transactions in some way. And, for decentralized systems (like most cryptocurrencies), that’d be a distributed network conformed by a lot of people all around the world and their computers and equipment (nodes). Especially the last ones.

문제는 네트워크의 모든 구성원 (로 알려진 광부 또는 검증 자) 하드웨어에 전체 블록 체인의 사본이 있습니다., and their specialized software or mining equipment is in charge of verifying and keeping the record of every new transaction and mint new “coins”; following the mathematical rules set by the system’s algorithm. The result always should be the same for most validators, otherwise, the transaction or block will be invalid.

합의 알고리즘

Image by Tomasz Mikołajczyk / Pixabay

We can define an algorithm as a set of steps and methods that are built —with math— to achieve a specific result or solve a problem. There’s a lot of algorithms out there, and not all of them work to build a blockchain. They should be very complex and strong, in order to maintain high security and force the rules among validators.

모든 암호 화폐 또는 블록 체인 시스템이 동일한 알고리즘을 사용하는 것은 아닙니다. 예를 들어 Bitcoin, uses SHA256 (the one we used before), but Ethereum uses Ethash and Zcash uses Equihash. They’re different mathematical functions, but the purpose is the same: encrypt the data.  

Unspent transaction outputs (UTXOs)

Pixabay로부터 입수 된 Matthias Wewering / Pixabay의 이미지

We know the term sounds difficult, but these are the “digital coins” or transactions per se. They’re like fragments of property that work to exchange with other people. You can compare them with the bills or cents inside your physical wallet, as well.

개인 및 공용 암호화 키

IntelFreePress / Flickr의 이미지

이들은 블록 체인 내에서 자금을주고 받기위한 주소로 작동하는 수학 키입니다. 공개 키는 은행 계좌 번호와 같습니다. you can share it freely to receive money. The private key, on the other side, works to “sign” the transactions and verify the real owner and their intention to send the funds. In other words, a private key is like a password, and both, the private and public key, form an “account” within the cryptocurrency or the blockchain.

“Blockchain” doesn’t mean “decentralized” always

As we said at first, a blockchain may not be distributed and may not be decentralized. It’s just a cryptographic ledger, after all, and the other elements that work with it can change according to the needs of their creators.

Satoshi Nakamoto was the first person to use it with Bitcoin,하지만 소스 코드 for this kind of ledger is open to the public. It can be copied, pasted, modified, and even sold. So, a lot of people (and enterprises) all around the world have been trying this technology for their own uses, even beyond cryptocurrencies. The banks aren’t excluded: they like using blockchains to build new payment platforms. And, as you may imagine, these aren’t decentralized, but totally controlled by the institutional network.

Sometimes, blockchains don’t work with distributed networks, just with controlled internal networks. This kind of platform needs user permissions from the creators, so, they’re called “permissioned” or private blockchains. On the other side, cryptocurrencies and platforms like Bitcoin works with decentralized networks. That makes them “permissionless” or public.


2016 년부터 암호 세계의 문학 전문가. 작가, 연구원 및 비트 코이너. 더 많은 분권화와 커피로 더 나은 세상을 위해 일합니다.

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